Gene - Gene Interactions Among MCP Genes Polymorphisms in Asthma

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Thursday, 10 July 2014 15:25
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2014 Jul;6(4):333-340. English.
Published online 2014 April 07. 
Copyright © 2014 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology • The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease
June-Hyuk Lee and Choon-Sik Park
Respiratory and Allergy Medicine, Interanl Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea.

 Correspondence to: Choon-Sik Park, MD, PhD, Respiratory and Allergy Medicine, Interanl Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, 170 Jomaru-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon 420-021, Korea. Tel: +82-32-621-5105; Fax: +82-32-621-5016; Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.  

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) are important cytokines that involved in cellular activation and releasing of inflammatoy mediators by basophils and eosinophils in allergic disease. Some MCP gene variants implicate in asthma and monoclonal antibody for MCP-3 blocks allergic inflammations in the patients with asthma. Detection of interactions between gene and environment or between genes for complex disease such as asthma is important. We searched for an evidence of genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MCP genes as well as gene - gene interactions involved in asthma.


Four hundreds asthmatics and four hundreds normal controls were enrolled. Asthma was defined as a positive bronchodilator response or positive methacholine provocation test with compatible clinical symptoms. Seven MCP gene SNPs (2 SNPs in MCP-1, 1 in MCP-2, and 4 in MCP-3) were included. Association analyses between SNP and asthma, and the tests for gene - gene interaction were performed.


Strong linkage disequilibria were found among 7 MCP gene polymorphisms. There was no SNP that showed a significant association with asthma among 7 SNPs of 3 MCP genes. No haplotype was associated with asthma, either. The combination of MCP1-2518G>AMCP2+46A>C, and MCP3+563C>T was the best predictive model for asthma as compared to the control in tests for gene - gene interaction. The MCP1-2518G>A and MCP2+46A>C was the second best predictive combination and this had the highest synergistic interaction effect on the subject's status than any other combination of polymorphisms. Complete linkages were not associated with the gene - gene interactions models.


MCP gene polymorphisms probably interact with each other; thus, these findings may help in developing a possible genetic marker to predict asthma.

Differential serum protein markers and the clinical severity of asthma

Super User Thursday, 26 June 2014 19:03

Authors: Norbert Meyer,1,2 Sarah Janine Nuss,1 Thomas Rothe,1 Alexander Siebenhüner,1 Cezmi A Akdis,2Günter Menz1

Published Date April 2014 Volume 2014:7 Pages 67 - 75

1Hochgebirgsklinik Davos, Davos-Wolfgang, Switzerland; 2Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), Davos Platz, Switzerland

Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by different clinical phenotypes and the involvement of multiple inflammatory pathways. During airway inflammation, many cytokines and chemokines are released and some are detectable in the sera.
Objective: Serum chemokines and cytokines, involved in airway inflammation in asthma patients, were investigated.
Methods: A total of 191 asthma patients were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis, including the following parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) serum levels, blood eosinophils, Junipers asthma symptom score, and the change in FEV1, ECP serum levels, and blood eosinophils after 3 weeks of asthma therapy. Serum proteins were measured by multiplex analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the validity of serum proteins for discriminating between asthma clusters.
Results: Classification of asthma patients identified one cluster with high ECP serum levels, increased blood eosinophils, low FEV1 values, and good FEV1 improvement in response to asthma therapy (n=60) and one cluster with low ECP serum levels, low numbers of blood eosinophils, higher FEV1 values, and no FEV1 improvement in response to asthma therapy (n=131). Serum interleukin (IL)-8, eotaxin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK), growth-related oncogene (GRO)-α, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly different between the two clusters of asthma patients. ROC analysis for serum proteins calculated a sensitivity of 55.9% and specificity of 75.8% for discriminating between them.
Conclusion: Serum cytokine and chemokine levels might be predictors for the severity of asthmatic inflammation, asthma control, and response to therapy, and therefore might be useful for treatment optimization.

Keywords: asthma, cluster, phenotype, serum cytokines
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Mechanisms of pathogenesis in allergic asthma: Role of interleukin-23

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Thursday, 19 June 2014 12:56
Yanchun Li and Shucheng Hua


Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by intense leukocyte and eosinophilic infiltration accompanied by mucus hypersecretion and tissue hyperresponsiveness. Recent evidence suggests that T-helper (Th)2 cells and their cytokine products orchestrate the pathology of asthma. In addition, Th17 cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of antigen-induced airway inflammation. The Th17 related cytokine interleukin (IL)-23 plays important roles in many immunological diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. Several reports describe the role of IL-23 in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma in both human and mice. IL-23 leads to neutrophil infiltration in the airway of asthmatic mice, which is characteristic of severe asthma resulting from Th17 development and subsequently IL-17 secretion. IL-23 can also promote eosinophil infiltration in the airway, which is a hallmark of allergic asthma. These studies suggest that IL-23 could be a promoting factor in the development of allergic asthma and likewise would be a target for asthma therapy. In support of this view, trials of anti-IL-23 therapy have been attempted in human and mouse asthma models with encouraging outcomes. This review presents the role of IL-23 in asthma according to recent clinical trials and animal model studies. The proposed mechanisms of IL-23-induced airway inflammation and the agents currently being tested that target IL-23 related pathways are discussed.

Article first published online: 30 APR 2014

DOI: 10.1111/resp.12299

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The role of macrolides in asthma: current evidence and future directions

Super User Wednesday, 25 June 2014 14:45
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Early Online Publication, 17 June 2014
doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70107-9 Cite or Link Using DOI
This article can be found in the following collections: Infectious Diseases (Anti-infective therapy); Respiratory Medicine (Asthma)

The role of macrolides in asthma: current evidence and future directions

Ernie H C Wong MBBS a b c dJames D Porter MSc a b cMichael R Edwards PhD a b cProf Sebastian L Johnston FRCP a b c d Corresponding AuthorThis email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Macrolides, such as clarithromycin and azithromycin, possess antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and potential antiviral properties. They represent a potential therapeutic option for asthma, a chronic inflammatory disorder characterised by airway hyper-responsiveness that leads to recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing. Results from clinical trials, however, have been contentious. The findings could be confounded by many factors, including the heterogeneity of asthma, treatment duration, dose, and differing outcome measures. Recent evidence suggests improved effectiveness of macrolides in patients with sub-optimally controlled severe neutrophilic asthma and in asthma exacerbations. We examine the evidence from clinical trials and discuss macrolide properties and their relevance to the pathophysiology of asthma. At present, the use of macrolides in chronic asthma or acute exacerbations is not justified. Further work, including proteomic, genomic, and microbiome studies, will advance our knowledge of asthma phenotypes, and help to identify a macrolide-responsive subgroup. Future clinical trials should target this subgroup and place emphasis on clinically relevant outcomes such as asthma exacerbations.
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Serum uric acid and the risk of respiratory disease: a population-based cohort study

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Wednesday, 11 June 2014 13:30

Thorax doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-205271

  • Respiratory epidemiology
  • Original article
Open Access
  1. Laura J Horsfall
  2. Irwin Nazareth
  3. Irene Petersen

+Author Affiliations

  1. Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health, Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care, University College London, London, UK
  1. Correspondence toDr Laura Horsfall, Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London Medical School, Royal Free Campus, London NW3 2PF, UK;This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  • Received 11 February 2014
  • Revised 13 May 2014
  • Accepted 16 May 2014
  • Published Online First 5 June 2014


Introduction Uric acid is the most abundant molecule with antioxidant properties found in human blood serum. We examined the relationship between serum uric acid and the incidence of respiratory disease including any effect modification by smoking status.

Methods A cohort with serum uric acid measured between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012 was extracted from The Health Improvement Network primary care research database. New diagnoses of COPD and lung cancer were ascertained based on diagnostic codes entered into the medical records.

Results During 1 002 496 person years (PYs) of follow-up, there were 3901 COPD diagnoses and 1015 cases of lung cancer. After multivariable adjustment, strong interactions with smoking status were detected (p<0.001) for both outcomes with significant negative relationships between serum uric acid and respiratory disease for current smokers but no strong relationships for never-smokers or ex-smokers. The relationships were strongest for lung cancer in heavy smokers (≥20 cigarettes per day) with predicted incidence rates 97 per 10 000 PYs (95% CI 68 to 126) in the lowest serum uric acid quintile (100–250 µmol/L) compared with a predicted 28 per 10 000 PYs (95% CI 14 to 41) in the highest quintile (438–700 µmol/L).

Conclusions Low levels of serum uric acid are associated with higher rates of COPD and lung cancer in current smokers after accounting for conventional risk factors.

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