Efficacy and Safety of Anti-Interleukin-5 Therapy in Patients with Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Tuesday, 17 January 2017 15:05
PLOS
 
Published: November 22, 2016
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166833
 
Fa-Ping Wang ,Ting Liu , Zhu Lan, Su-Yun Li, Hui Mao 

Abstract

Background

Recent trials have assessed the efficacy and safety of novel monoclonal antibodies such as reslizumab and benralizumab. However, the overall efficacy and safety anti—interleukin (IL) 5 treatment in asthma have not been thoroughly assessed.

Methods

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of anti-IL-5 treatment on patients with asthma published up to October 2016 in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) that reported pulmonary function, quality of life scores, asthmatic exacerbation rate, blood and sputum eosinophil counts, short-acting β-agonist (SABA) rescue use, and adverse events were included. The pooled mean difference, and relative risks (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models.

Results

Twenty studies involving 7100 patients were identified. Pooled analysis revealed significant improvements in FEV1 (first second forced expiratory volume) (MD = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.06–0.12, I2 = 10%), FEV1% (MD = 3.75, 95% CI: 1.66–5.83, I2 = 19%), Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) score (MD = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15–0.30, I2 = 0%), decreased blood, sputum eosinophils and asthmatic exacerbation (RR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.59–0.73, I2 = 51%); peak expiratory flow (PEF) (MD = 5.45, 95% CI: -2.83–13.72, I2 = 0%), histamine PC20 (MD = -0.62, 95% CI: -1.92–0.68, I2 = 0%) or SABA rescue use (MD = -0.11, 95% CI: -0.3–0.07, I2 = 30%) were unaffected; adverse events were not increased (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98, I2 = 46%). No publication bias was observed (Egger's P = 0.78).

Conclusions

Anti-interleukin 5 monoclonal therapies for asthma could be safe for slightly improving FEV1 (or FEV1% of predicted value), quality of life, and reducing exacerbations risk and blood and sputum eosinophils, but have no significant effect on PEF, histamine PC20, and SABA rescue use. Further trials required to establish to clarify the optimal antibody for different patients.

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Asthma in children: can serum tryptase levels predict disease severity?

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Tuesday, 10 January 2017 13:54
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016;171:194-202 
(DOI:10.1159/000452624)
 
 

Diagnostic Value of Serum Baseline Tryptase Levels in Childhood Asthma and Its Correlation with Disease Severity

Gao S. · Fan J. · Wang Z. 
 
Department of Pediatrics, Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi City, China
 
email Corresponding Author
 
 

Abstract

Background: The aim of this study was to explore whether serum baseline tryptase (sBT) levels might be a useful marker not only for the accurate diagnosis of childhood asthma, but also for the prediction of disease severity. Methods: A total of 114 asthmatic children were enrolled in this study, 36 of whom had mild intermittent asthma, 38 had mild persistent asthma, and 40 had moderate to severe persistent asthma. Additionally, 34 age-matched healthy children were enrolled as controls. The sBT levels of these populations were measured using a fluoroenzymeimmunoassay kit. The diagnostic performance of sBT levels and their correlation with asthma severity were systematically investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and correlation analysis. Results: Children with mild and moderate to severe persistent asthma had significantly increased sBT levels as compared to those with mild intermittent asthma and healthy controls. ROC analysis further demonstrated that sBT levels not only appear to be highly sensitive and specific for distinguishing asthmatic children from healthy controls, but also show good accuracy for the differentiation of various asthmatic subgroups. Correlation analysis revealed that in all asthmatic subgroups sBT levels were significantly correlated with a variety of key markers that reflect the disease severity of asthma, including childhood asthma control test scores, serum IgE and interleukin-13 levels, blood eosinophil counts, and pulmonary test parameters. Conclusions: sBT levels may have a potential use in supporting a diagnosis of asthma in children and as a predictor of disease severity.

© 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel

Near-fatal asthma: a heterogeneous clinical entity

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Saturday, 07 January 2017 15:26

 MECHANISMS OF ALLERGY AND ADULT ASTHMA: Edited by J Andrew Grant and Gustavo J Rodrigo  

Serrano-Pariente, José; Plaza, Vicente

Abstract

Purpose of review: The aims of the present review were to describe the heterogeneous nature of near-fatal asthma (NFA) and to summarize the distinctive phenotypes identified in this subtype of asthma. Recent findings: Clinical, physiological, and histological studies have shown a large number of triggers, pathological mechanisms, and risk factors associated with NFA. Based on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, the circumstances surrounding the asthma exacerbation and some distinctive features of the disease, several clinical profiles of asthma patients with NFA have been described. Recent data show new associations between some gene expression patterns and fatal asthma, as well as with some biological markers related to inflammatory or immunologic mechanisms in the airways. Also, the use of statistical methods, such as cluster analysis, allowed identifying and confirming different phenotypes of life-threatening asthma patients. Summary: NFA is a heterogeneous clinical entity, in which different patients’ clinical profiles may coexist [e.g. rapid-onset NFA, NFA in patients with dyspnea hypoperception or sensitized to certain pneumoallergens (Alternaria alternata, soybean), NFA related to the menstrual cycle, brittle asthma]. Knowledge of these phenotypes as well as adequate and specific management strategies can reduce morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from NFA.

Current Opinion in Allergy & Clinical Immunology: February 2017 - Volume 17 - Issue 1 - p 28–35 doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000333

Spotlight on fluticasone furoate/vilanterol trifenatate for the once-daily treatment of asthma: design, development and place in therapy

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Saturday, 07 January 2017 23:47
Logo of dddt Dove Medical Press This Article Subscribe Submit a Manuscript Search Follow Dovepress Drug Design, Development and Therapy

Abstract

The use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) plays a key role in the treatment of asthmatic patients, and international guidelines have designated ICSs as an early maintenance therapy in controlling asthma symptoms. When asthmatic patients remain symptomatic on ICSs, one common option is to add a long-acting beta2 agonist (LABA) to the maintenance treatment. Fixed combination inhalers that contain both an ICS and a LABA have been popular for both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Historically, these inhalers have been dosed twice daily. However, currently, there is a once-daily combination therapy with the ICS fluticasone furoate (FF) and the LABA vilanterol trifenatate (VI) with indications for use in both COPD and asthma. This dry powder inhaler (DPI) comes in two doses of FF (100 or 200 μg) both combined with VI (25 μg). This article reviews the clinical trial data for FF, VI and FF/VI combination inhalers and documents the efficacy and safety of once-daily inhaled maintenance therapy by DPI in asthmatic patients.

Formats: Article  PubReader  ePub (beta)  PDF (416K)  Citation

 

Bronchial Thermoplasty for Severe Asthma: A Review of the Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Tuesday, 03 January 2017 22:52

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal

Severe asthma is a chronic condition in which patients experience airway inflammation and airway muscle contraction leading to symptoms of breathlessness, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. It is one of the most common chronic conditions with an estimated 235 million people affected worldwide, an increasing global prevalence, and a lifetime of impacts on healthcare systems. Exacerbations of this condition can be serious, negatively impact patient quality of life, require hospitalization and emergency department (ED) services. The standard approach to care employs regular maintenance medications, usually inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), while other medications may also be used including omalizumab and oral corticosteroids. Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an endoscopic therapy, the first nonpharmacologic intervention approved by Health Canada for the treatment of severe asthma. BT employs radiofrequency energy pulses to selectively reduce the thicker airway smooth muscle found in asthmatic patients. This selective ablation is thought to reduce airway hyper-responsiveness, airway obstruction, and asthma symptoms. Further research is required to help more clearly determine the mechanisms of action of bronchial thermoplasty. Limitations of the technique include the inability to treat distal symptomatic airways due to their small diameter, and contraindications for patients with implanted medical devices.

This report is an update to a previous Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) Rapid Response Report published in March 2014 that provided a summary of abstracts on bronchial thermoplasty. The purpose of this report is to retrieve and review the current evidence from full text articles of clinical efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of BT. In addition this report aims to retrieve and review existing guidelines on the use of BT for the treatment of severe asthma.

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