Do airway inflammation and airway responsiveness markers at the start of apprenticeship predict their evolution during initial training? A longitudinal study among apprentice bakers, pastry makers and hairdressers

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Friday, 20 July 2018 20:50
BMC Pulmonary Medicine Research article - Open Access - Open Peer Review
Valérie Demange, Denis Zmirou-NavierAbraham Bohadana and Pascal Wild

Abstract

Background

The natural history of airway inflammation and symptoms in occupations at risk of asthma is still not fully understood. We aimed to study the evolution during apprenticeship of inflammation markers, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and symptoms in at-risk subgroups as defined from measurements of markers made shortly after the start of training.

Methods

Respiratory symptoms, FEV1 and airway resistance post-bronchial challenge (MBC) test results, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements, and eosinophils in nasal lavage fluid were investigated in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers. Four visits were conducted: at the start of the training and every six months thereafter. Four baseline risk groups were defined, based on, (i) a high level of FeNO (NO), (ii) eosinophils > 1% (Eosino), (iii) a ≥ 15% decrease in FEV1 during the MBC test (HR), and (iv) a ≥ 50% increase in the resistance (Resist). The statistical analysis relied on mixed models.

Results

At baseline, the inflammation markers were related to the MBC markers. There was no evidence to suggest that the baseline risk groups predict a differential evolution of the airway inflammation and bronchial responsiveness markers, or the asthma-like symptoms considered. The baseline risk groups defined from MBC test predicted the levels of MBC markers. Similarly, the baseline risk groups based on eosinophilic inflammation predicted the levels of markers for eosinophilia. These results were similar in the three training tracks, with the exception of the FeNO levels which were not different according to the Eosino risk group. Twelve possible new asthma cases were identified, only the HR risk group predicted their occurrence.

Conclusions

Among this young population, at-risk groups based on initial high levels of inflammation markers did not experience any worsening during the follow-up. However, initial BHR predicted consistently high levels of all markers considered and occurrence of possible asthma.

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Cell distribution and cytokine levels in induced sputum from healthy subjects and patients with asthma after using different nebulizer techniques

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Wednesday, 18 July 2018 23:30
Research article, Open Access, Open Peer Review
Sinem Koc-GünelRalf SchubertStefan Zielen and Martin Rosewich

Abstract

Background

Sputum induction is an important noninvasive method for analyzing bronchial inflammation in patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases. Most frequently, ultrasonic nebulizers are used for sputum induction, but breath-controlled nebulizers may target the small airways more efficiently. This treatment may produce a cell distribution similar to bronchoalveolar lavage (less neutrophils and more macrophages) and provide deeper insights into the underlying lung pathology. The goal of the study was to compare both types of nebulizer devices and their efficacy in inducing sputum to measure bronchial inflammation, i.e., cell composition and cytokines, in patients with mild allergic asthma and healthy controls.

Methods

The population of this study consisted of 20 healthy control subjects with a median age of 17 years, range: 8–25 years, and 20 patients with a median age of 12 years, range: 8–24 years, presenting with mild, controlled allergic asthma who were not administered an inhaled steroid treatment. We induced sputum in every individual using both devices on two separate days. The sputum weight, the cell composition and cytokine levels were analyzed using a cytometric bead assay (CBA) and by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR).

Results

We did not observe significant differences in the weight, cell distribution or cytokine levels in the sputum samples induced by both devices. In addition, the Bland-Altman correlation revealed good concordance of the cell distribution. As expected, eosinophils and IL-5 levels were significantly elevated in patients with asthma.

Conclusions

The hypothesis that sputum induction with a breath-controlled “smart” nebulizer is more efficient and different from an ultrasonic nebulizer was not confirmed. The Bland-Altman correlations showed good concordance when comparing the two devices.

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Criteria for enhancing mucus transport: a systematic scoping review

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Monday, 09 July 2018 22:26
Review - Open Access
Alison Pieterse and Susan D. Hanekom

Abstract

Background

Uncertainty exists regarding the physiological basis of physiotherapy strategies to facilitate mucus clearance. The aim of this review was to describe the physiological factors and intrinsic conditions that facilitate airway mucus transport.

Method

A scoping review was performed. A systematic literature search of six databases was executed. Eligibility criteria were applied by two researchers to reach the aim of the review. Papers were identified independently by two reviewers on title, abstract and full-text level. Any discrepancies were discussed with a third reviewer.

Results

The search identified 35 papers published between 1975 and 2015. These differed significantly in terms of outcome measures, measurement techniques and methodologies and included animal studies, laboratory investigations, and the use of small human samples. Nine key factors influencing mucus transport were identified. These include: temperature and humidity, bronchial perfusion, ATP, forced expiratory technique and cough, generation of oscillation, ventilation patterns/airflow, epithelial differences, mucus properties and positioning.

Conclusion

This review provides a framework for factors/conditions influencing mucus transport. Existing physiotherapy strategies for augmentation of airway mucus clearance can now be evaluated against the framework and new modalities informed.

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Omalizumab effectiveness in patients with severe allergic asthma according to blood eosinophil count: the STELLAIR study

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Tuesday, 17 July 2018 12:37
Marc HumbertCamille TailléLaurence MalaVincent Le GrosJocelyne JustMathieu Molimard

Abstract

Omalizumab is a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody used to treat severe allergic asthma (SAA). The aim of the STELLAIR study was to determine the importance of pre-treatment blood eosinophil count as a predictive measure for response to omalizumab.

This retrospective real-life study was conducted in France between December 2015 and September 2016 using medical records of SAA omalizumab-treated patients. Response to omalizumab was assessed by three criteria: physician evaluation, reduction of ≥40% in annual exacerbation rate and a combination of both. Response rate was calculated according to blood eosinophil count measured in the year prior to omalizumab initiation.

872 SAA omalizumab-treated patients were included by 78 physicians (723 adults (age ≥18 years) and 149 minors (age 6–17 years)). Blood eosinophil count was ≥300 cells·µL−1 in 52.1% of adults and 73.8% of minors. By physician evaluation, 67.2% of adults and 77.2% of minors were responders and 71.1% adults and 78.5% minors had a ≥40% reduction in the exacerbation rate. In adults, the response rate for combined criteria was 58.4% (95% CI 53.2–63.4%) for blood eosinophils ≥300 cells·µL−1 (n=377) and 58.1% (95% CI 52.7–63.4%) for blood eosinophils <300 cells·µL−1 (n=346).

This study shows that a large proportion of patients with SAA have a blood eosinophil count ≥300 cells·µL−1, and suggests that omalizumab effectiveness is similar in “high” and “low” eosinophil subgroups.


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XII AIST 2018 Conference: “The thousand faces of cough: clinical and therapeutic updates”

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Thursday, 05 July 2018 13:00

Meeting report - Open Access

Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine

Alessandro Zanasi, Antonio M. Morselli-Labate, Massimiliano Mazzolini, Marianna Mastroroberto, Roberto W. Dal Negro, Ivan Poliacek, Alyn H. Morice, Sara Maio, Giovanni Viegi, Jamie Koufman, Francesco Torresan, Alexandros Ioannou, Daniele Mandolesi, Elisa Liverani, Amedeo Montale, Franco Bazzoli, Fabio Baldi, Maurizio Zompatori, Giovanni A. Fontana, Ahmad Kantar, Peter Dicpinigaitis, Clive Page, Surinder S. Birring and Francesco Tursi

Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 2018 13:17

Abstract

This paper summarizes the presentations submitted for publication of the 12th AIST National Congress (Associazione Italiana Studio Tosse/Italian Association for Cough Study) entitled “The thousand facets of cough. A clinical and therapeutic update”, which occurred last February 2nd-3rd, 2018 in Bologna (Italy). It summarizes the contributions from leading experts of the sector, who, as in the previous editions, also this year have analyzed a problem too often underestimated which still has many dark sides as regards both the diagnosis and the therapy of cough. The Scientific Committee has chosen topics that had less space in previous editions and these are topical subjects representing a concrete opportunity for learning and comparison of opinions, as well as indispensable elements for the correct management of the symptoms.

Hereby we report the abstracts of the works submitted for publication in this Meeting report.

The main topics have covered Cough relationship with nerve vagus, ATP, air pollution, GERD, imaging, COPD, pediatric and therapy. Of particular interest it is the preliminary data on cough hydration ratio that shows a highly significant correlation between dehydration and cough.

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Editor: Juan C. Ivancevich, MD

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