Advanced Role of Neutrophils in Common Respiratory Diseases

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Sunday, 11 June 2017 23:42

Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 6710278, 21 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6710278

Review Article

1Institute of Frontier Medical Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
2Department of Pathogen Biology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
3Department of Pharmacology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China

Abstract

Respiratory diseases, always being a threat towards the health of people all over the world, are most tightly associated with immune system. Neutrophils serve as an important component of immune defense barrier linking innate and adaptive immunity. They participate in the clearance of exogenous pathogens and endogenous cell debris and play an essential role in the pathogenesis of many respiratory diseases. However, the pathological mechanism of neutrophils remains complex and obscure. The traditional roles of neutrophils in severe asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), pneumonia, lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis had already been reviewed. With the development of scientific research, the involvement of neutrophils in respiratory diseases is being brought to light with emerging data on neutrophil subsets, trafficking, and cell death mechanism (e.g., NETosis, apoptosis) in diseases. We reviewed all these recent studies here to provide you with the latest advances about the role of neutrophils in respiratory diseases.

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Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Effect on the neonatal immune system in a randomized controlled trial

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Thursday, 01 June 2017 12:39

Background

Programming of the immune system during fetal development can influence asthma-related risk factors and outcomes in later life. Vitamin D is a well-recognized immune modulator, and deficiency of this nutrient during pregnancy is hypothesized to influence disease development in offspring.

Objective

We sought to investigate the effect on neonatal immunity of maternal supplementation with 4400 IU/d vitamin D3during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy by using a subset of cord blood samples from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial).

Methods

Cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers supplemented with 4400 IU/d (n = 26) or 400 IU/d (n = 25) of vitamin D3 were analyzed for immune cell composition by flow cytometry, Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression by quantitative PCR, and cytokine secretion after stimulation with mitogenic, TLR, and T-cell stimuli by cytometric bead array. Responsiveness to the glucocorticoid dexamethasone was determined.

Results

Supplementation of mothers with 4400 IU of vitamin D3 resulted in an enhanced broad-spectrum proinflammatory cytokine response of cord blood mononuclear cells to innate and mitogenic stimuli (P = .0009), with an average 1.7- to 2.1-fold increase in levels of several proinflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) across stimuli, a higher gene expression level of TLR2 (P = .02) and TLR9 (P = .02), a greater than 4-fold increase in IL-17A (P = .03) production after polyclonal T-cell stimulation, and an enhanced IL-10 response of cord blood mononuclear cells to dexamethasone treatment in culture (P = .018).

Conclusion

Vitamin D exposure during fetal development influences the immune system of the neonate, which can contribute to protection from asthma-related, including infectious, outcomes in early life.

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Utility of serum eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) measurement by ELISA in young children with asthma

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Monday, 22 May 2017 20:29

Abstract

Background

This study was done to compare the efficacy of a recently developed eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) ELISA kit (“BioTracer™ K® EDN ELISA Kit”) to a commercially available EDN ELISA kit (“MBL EDN ELISA Kit”) and demonstrate the usefulness of serum EDN measurement in young asthmatic children.

Methods

Forty-eight children with physician-diagnosed asthma (Asthma group) and 31 age-matched normal controls (Control group) were recruited from the Asthma and Allergy Center at Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea from January 2010 to September of 2012. EDN levels in each serum specimen were measured 2 times using the: 1) BioTracer™ K® EDN ELISA Kit and 2) MBL EDN ELISA Kit at the Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital laboratory. EDN level measurements in each serum specimen were compared.

Results

EDN measurements from the BioTracer™ K® EDN ELISA Kit correlated well with those from the MBL EDN ELISA Kit: r = 0.9472 at the Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital laboratory. These r values were considered both clinically relevant (i.e., r > 0.85) and statistically significant (p < 0.0001). EDN measurements from both kits positively correlated with asthma symptom severity (p < 0.0001). No serious adverse events occurred during the study.

Conclusions

The BioTracer™ K® EDN ELISA Kit was accurate and useful in measuring EDN levels in young asthma patient serum. Because of our kit's distinct advantages and utility, we suggest this kit can be used for the timely diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of asthma in asthma patients of all ages, especially those too young to perform pulmonary function tests.

Thermal ablation for asthma: current status and technique

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Monday, 29 May 2017 13:17
Vol 9, Supplement 2 (March 2017)
Review Article

William Krmisky 1, Michal J. Sobieszczyk 2, Saiyad Sarkar 3

1Interventional Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, MedStar Franklin Square Hospital Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; 3Interventional Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, MedStar Franklin Square Hospital Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Contributions: (I) Conception and design: W Krimsky; (II) Administrative support: MJ Sobieszczyk, S Sarkar; (III) Provision of study materials or patients: MJ Sobieszczyk; (IV) Collection and assembly of data: MJ Sobieszczyk; (V) Data analysis and interpretation: MJ Sobieszczyk; (VI) Manuscript writing: All authors; (VII) Final approval of manuscript: All authors.

Correspondence to: William Krimsky, MD. Interventional Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, MedStar Franklin Square Hospital Center, 9103 Franklin Square Drive Suite 300 Baltimore, MD 21237, USA. Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Abstract: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a novel technique used in the treatment of severe asthma. A catheter is advanced through the bronchoscope and directed radiofrequency waves are applied to the segmental bronchi to reduce airway smooth muscle mass. Several randomized clinical trials demonstrate improvement in quality of life and reduction in exacerbation rates after treatment. BT is a safe and cost effective treatment option for severe asthma which is refractory to medical treatment. Further studies are needed in order to better describe the mechanism of action and the asthma subphenotype that was best benefit from this treatment.

doi: 10.21037/jtd.2016.11.113

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A comparison of seasonal trends in asthma exacerbations among children from geographic regions with different climates

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Monday, 15 May 2017 20:45
Logo of allap Search www.oceansidepubl.com
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings
Allergy Asthma Proc. 2016 Nov-Dec; 37(6): 475–481.
PMCID: PMC5080535

Julia A. Wisniewski, M.D.,1 Anne P. McLaughlin, M.D.,1 Philip J. Stenger, M.S.,2 James Patrie, M.S.,3 Mark A. Brown, M.D.,4 Jane M. El-Dahr, M.D.,5 Thomas A.E. Platts-Mills, M.D., Ph.D.,1 Nora J. Byrd, M.S.H.A., M.B.A.,6 and Peter W. Heymann, M.D.corresponding author1

Abstract

Background:

The fall peak in childhood asthma exacerbations is thought to be related to an increase in viral infections and allergen exposure when children return to school. Whether the seasonality of asthma attacks among children from different geographic regions follows similar trends is unclear.

Objective:

To compare seasonal trends in asthma exacerbations among school-age children who lived in different geographic locations, with different climates, within the United States.

Methods:

Hospital billing data bases were examined to determine the monthly number of school-age children who were hospitalized or treated in the emergency department (ED) for asthma exacerbations. Data from four cities within three states were compared. Climate data were obtained from archives of the National Climate Data Center, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Results:

An annual peak in asthma exacerbations was observed during the fall months (September through November) among children who lived in Charlottesville, Virginia, as well as throughout the state of Virginia. An increase in exacerbations, which peaked in November, was observed for exacerbations among children who lived in Tucson, Arizona, and Yuma, Arizona. In contrast, exacerbations among children from New Orleans, Louisiana, increased in September but remained elevated throughout the school year. Although there was annual variation in the frequency of exacerbations over time, the seasonal patterns observed remained similar within the locations from year to year. A nadir in the frequency of attacks was observed during the summer months in all the locations.

Conclusion: 

Seasonal peaks for asthma exacerbations varied among the children who lived in geographic locations with different climates, and were not restricted to the beginning of the school year.

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Editor: Juan C. Ivancevich, MD

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