Effects of Macrolide Treatment during the Hospitalization of Children with Childhood Wheezing Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Friday, 16 November 2018 23:15
J. Clin. Med. 20187(11), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7110432
 
Abstract
Children are susceptible to a variety of respiratory infections. Wheezing is a common sign presented by children with respiratory infections. Asthma, bronchiolitis, and bronchitis are common causes of childhood wheezing disease (CWD) and are regarded as overlapping disease spectra. Macrolides are common antimicrobial agents with anti-inflammatory effects. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and a systematic review of studies that investigated the influences of macrolide treatment on CWD. The primary outcomes were the impact of macrolides on hospitalization courses of patients with CWD. Data pertaining to the study population, macrolide treatment, hospital courses, and recurrences were analyzed. Twenty-three studies with a combined study population of 2210 patients were included in the systematic review. Any kind of benefit from macrolide treatment was observed in approximately two-thirds of the studies (15/23). Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis to investigate the influence of macrolides on the length of stay (LOS), duration of oxygen demand (DOD), symptoms and signs of respiratory distress, and re-admission rates. Although the benefits of macrolide treatment were reported in several of the studies, no significant differences in LOS, DOD, symptoms and signs of respiratory distress, or re-admission rates were observed in patients undergoing macrolide treatment. In conclusion, any kind of benefit of macrolide treatment was observed in approximately two-thirds of the studies; however, no obvious benefits of macrolide treatment were observed in the hospitalization courses of children with CWD. The routine use of macrolides to improve the hospitalization course of children with CWD is not suggested. 
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Improvement of patient-reported outcomes in severe allergic asthma by omalizumab treatment: the real life observational PROXIMA study

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Monday, 12 November 2018 21:22
Original research - Open Access
Giorgio Walter CanonicaPaola RottoliCaterina BuccaMaria Cristina ZappaGiovanni MichettiBruno MacciocchiCristiano CarusoPierachille SantusMarta BartezaghiLaura Rigoni and on behalf of PROXIMA study centers

Abstract

Background

Data on the prevalence of perennial versus seasonal allergic asthma in Italy are lacking; moreover, there is limited evidence on the effect of omalizumab on patient-reported outcomes in Italian patients with severe allergic asthma. PROXIMA, an observational, multicenter study, was designed to assess the prevalence of perennial versus seasonal allergic asthma (cross-sectional phase) and the effect of omalizumab on improving illness perception, quality of life (QoL) and asthma control of Italian patients with severe allergic asthma (longitudinal phase).

Methods

The study included a cross-sectional phase (n = 357) and a longitudinal phase (n = 123): during the longitudinal phase, patients received omalizumab (75–600 mg subcutaneously every month) and were followed-up for 12 months. The primary parameter of cross-sectional phase was prevalence of perennial allergic asthma and that of longitudinal phase was proportion of patients with asthma control (assessed using asthma control questionnaire [ACQ]). Secondary parameters assessed were patients’ disease perception, level of asthma control, exacerbation rate during both cross-sectional and longitudinal phases, and patients' compliance to and persistence with omalizumab, and patients' QoL during the longitudinal phase.

Results

Most patients (95.8%) had perennial allergies; 81% had polysensitization. Of 99 patients in the per-protocol set, 95 (95.96% [95% CI: 89.98–98.89%]) achieved asthma control (ACQ < 4) at both 6 and 12 months of omalizumab treatment; ACQ score decreased after 6 and 12 months (P < 0.0001). Omalizumab treatment resulted in a significant improvement in QoL and patients’ illness perception and 87% decrease in exacerbation rate. The compliance rate with omalizumab was high (73.2%). No new safety signals were identified during treatment.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that in severe allergic asthma, omalizumab improves patient-reported outcomes such as patients’ illness perception and QoL, while confirming improvement of asthma control and exacerbation rate reduction in Italian patients.

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Improvement of exertional dyspnea and breathing pattern of inspiration to expiration after bronchial thermoplasty

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Wednesday, 31 October 2018 13:18
 
Keisuke Miki, Mari MikiKenji YoshimuraKazuyuki TsujinoHiroyuki KagawaYohei OshitaniYuko OharaYuki HosonoRyuya EdahiroHiroyuki Kurebe and Seigo Kitada. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology 2018 14:74

Abstract

Background

Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic treatment that can ameliorate the symptoms of severe asthma. However, little is known about the mechanism by which BT improves exertional dyspnea without significantly changing the resting pulmonary function in asthmatics. To understand the mechanism, cardiopulmonary variables were investigated using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in a patient with severe asthma before and after BT.

Case presentation

A 57-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital for consultation of the intractable asthma, which we managed with three treatment sessions of BT. Comparison of the findings pre-BT and at 1 year after BT demonstrated that (1) the resting tests for respiration showed no improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s, but the forced oscillation technique showed decreases in both inhalation and exhalation respiratory resistance values, and (2) the CPET results showed (i) improvement in exertional dyspnea, exercise endurance, and arterial oxygen saturation at the end of exercise; (ii) that the expiratory tidal volume exceeded the inspiratory tidal volume during exercise, which implied that a sufficient exhalation enabled longer inspiratory time and adequate oxygen absorption; and (iii) that an increase in respiratory frequency could be prevented throughout exercise.

Conclusions

This case report described a novel mechanism of BT in improving exertional dyspnea and exercise duration, which was brought about by ventilatory improvements related to the breathing pattern of inspiration to expiration.

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Vaccination and Allergic Sensitization in Early Childhood – The ALADDIN Birth Cohort

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Monday, 12 November 2018 21:21
Original research - Open Access
Giorgio Walter CanonicaPaola RottoliCaterina BuccaMaria Cristina ZappaGiovanni MichettiBruno MacciocchiCristiano CarusoPierachille SantusMarta BartezaghiLaura Rigoni and on behalf of PROXIMA study centers

Abstract

Background

Data on the prevalence of perennial versus seasonal allergic asthma in Italy are lacking; moreover, there is limited evidence on the effect of omalizumab on patient-reported outcomes in Italian patients with severe allergic asthma. PROXIMA, an observational, multicenter study, was designed to assess the prevalence of perennial versus seasonal allergic asthma (cross-sectional phase) and the effect of omalizumab on improving illness perception, quality of life (QoL) and asthma control of Italian patients with severe allergic asthma (longitudinal phase).

Methods

The study included a cross-sectional phase (n = 357) and a longitudinal phase (n = 123): during the longitudinal phase, patients received omalizumab (75–600 mg subcutaneously every month) and were followed-up for 12 months. The primary parameter of cross-sectional phase was prevalence of perennial allergic asthma and that of longitudinal phase was proportion of patients with asthma control (assessed using asthma control questionnaire [ACQ]). Secondary parameters assessed were patients’ disease perception, level of asthma control, exacerbation rate during both cross-sectional and longitudinal phases, and patients' compliance to and persistence with omalizumab, and patients' QoL during the longitudinal phase.

Results

Most patients (95.8%) had perennial allergies; 81% had polysensitization. Of 99 patients in the per-protocol set, 95 (95.96% [95% CI: 89.98–98.89%]) achieved asthma control (ACQ < 4) at both 6 and 12 months of omalizumab treatment; ACQ score decreased after 6 and 12 months (P < 0.0001). Omalizumab treatment resulted in a significant improvement in QoL and patients’ illness perception and 87% decrease in exacerbation rate. The compliance rate with omalizumab was high (73.2%). No new safety signals were identified during treatment.

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that in severe allergic asthma, omalizumab improves patient-reported outcomes such as patients’ illness perception and QoL, while confirming improvement of asthma control and exacerbation rate reduction in Italian patients.

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A systematic diagnostic evaluation combined with an internet-based self-management support system for patients with asthma or COPD.

Juan Carlos Ivancevich Friday, 26 October 2018 23:21
 
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018 Oct 12;13:3297-3306. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S175361. eCollection 2018.
 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

An (inter)national systematic approach for patients with asthma COPD referred to secondary care is lacking. Therefore, a novel systematic approach was designed and tested in clinical practice.

METHODS:

This was a retrospective observational study of data from the electronic record system of the Leiden University Medical Center. Asthma and COPD patients were included if they were evaluated with a novel systematic approach or if they had a new record for asthma or COPD and received usual care. The novel systematic approach consisted of a predefined diagnostic evaluation combined with an optional internet-based self-management support system. Diagnostic tests, final diagnosis, lifestyle advices, symptoms and individual care plans in the electronic records, number of patients referred back to primary care, and time to referral back to primary care were compared between the systematic approach and usual care groups using t-tests and chi-squared tests.

RESULTS:

A total of 125 patients were included, of which 22 (21.4%) were evaluated with the systematic approach. Mean (±SD) age was 48.8 (±18.4) years and 59.2% were women. Mean (±SD) number of diagnostic tests was higher in the systematic approach group compared with the usual care group (7.6±1.0 vs 5.5±1.8, P<0.001). Similarly, in the systematic approach group, more lifestyle advices (81.8% vs 29.1%), symptom scores (95.5% vs 21.4%), and individual care plans (50.0% vs 7.8%) were electronically recorded (P<0.001), and more patients were referred back to primary care (81.8% vs 56.3%, P=0.03). There were no differences in the final diagnoses and time to referral back.

CONCLUSION:

Our study suggested that not all tests that were included in the systematic approach are regularly needed in the diagnostic work-up. In addition, a designated systematic approach stimulates physicians to record lifestyle advices, symptoms, and individual care plans. Thus, this approach could increase the number of patients referred back to primary care.

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Editor: Juan C. Ivancevich, MD

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