Assessment of predictors for acute asthma attack in asthmatic patients visiting an Ethiopian hospital: are the potential factors still a threat?

Research - Open Access

Sewunet Admasu Belachew Daniel Asfaw ErkuDawit Kumilachew Yimenu and Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie

Background

Recurrent exacerbations in patients with moderate or severe asthma are the major causes of morbidity, mortality and medical expenditure. Identifying predictors of frequent asthma attack might offer the fertile ground of asthma management. However, systematic data on asthma management is scarce in Ethiopia.

Objective

The purpose of the present study was to determine predictors of acute asthma attack in patients with asthma attending emergency department of University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (UOGCSH) in Gondar, northwestern Ethiopia.

Methods

An institutional-based cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted on 108 asthmatic patients who came to the emergency department of UOGCSH following acute asthma attack. Data were collected through interviewer administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was done to see the possible association of potential factors that may lead to asthma exacerbation.

Result

About half of the respondents (51.9%) were female and one third of patients (38.9%) were within the age range of between 46 and 60 years. The leading potential predictor were frequent exposure to various ongoing allergen (68.5%) followed by revelation to occupational sensitizers (67.6%). Chronic sinusitis (AOR = 3.532, 95% CL = 1.116–11.178), obstructive sleep apnea (AOR = 3.425, 95% CL = 1.255–9.356) and psychological disfunctioning (3.689 (1.327–10.255)) were among the significantly associated factors of acute asthma exacerbation.

Conclusions

Now days, the backbone for long-term asthma management is to prevent exacerbations. Chronic sinusitis, obstructed sleep apnea and psychosocial dysfunction were originated to be considerably linked with repeated exacerbations of asthma. Among those significantly associated predictors, obstructed sleep apnea were the most prevalent one.

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Editor: Juan C. Ivancevich, MD

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