Saglani S, Yates L, Lloyd CM. Eur J Immunol. 2023 Mar 17:e2249919. doi: 10.1002/eji.202249919. Free Access
Asthma is classically considered to be a disease of type 2 immune dysfunction, since many patients exhibit the consequences of excess secretion of cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 concomitant with inflammation typified by eosinophils. Mouse and human disease models have determined that many of the canonical pathophysiologic features of asthma may be caused by these disordered type 2 immune pathways. As such considerable efforts have been made to develop specific drugs targeting key cytokines. There are currently available multiple biologic agents that successfully reduce the functions of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in patients, and many improve the course of severe asthma. However, none are curative, and do not always minimise the key features of disease – such as airway hyperresponsiveness. Here, we review the current therapeutic landscape targeting type 2 immune cytokines and discuss evidence of efficacy and limitations of their use in adults and children with asthma.